Environ Technol 36:86–97. The main objective of this review article was to compile an extensive list of adsorbents which will help the future generation to furnish comprehensive up-to-date research summary on adsorbents used for removal of MG dye. J Chem 5:844–852. The adsorption of MG by HNTs obeyed pseudo-second-order kinetics with activation energy 18.28 kJ/mol, suggested that the process was physisorption. Biointerphases 2:MR17–MR71. Orange peel is discarded in the orange-juice and soft-drink industries all over the world. (2011). doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.11.018, Janoš P, Šmídová V (2005) Effects of surfactants on the adsorptive removal of basic dyes from water using an organomineral sorbent—iron humate. Water Res 39:1347–1353. doi:10.1080/10934520902720132, Bejarano-Pérez NJ, Suárez-Herrera MF (2008) Sonochemical and sonophotocatalytic degradation of malachite green: the effect of carbon tetrachloride on reaction rates. Shirmardi et al. The authors would like to express gratitude to the Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia for financial support provided under the Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS) with project code: 03-01-16-1844FR. J Hazard Mater 167:1089–1094. Int J Phys Sci 2:10–17, Heydartaemeh MR, Ardejani FD, Badii K et al (2014) FeCl2/FeCl3 perlite nanoparticles as a novel magnetic material for adsorption of green malachite dye. Cyanine dyes cannot be used as textile dyes because they have poor light fastness. Chieng et al. doi:10.1016/j.desal.2009.01.006, Sonawane SH, Chaudhari PL, Ghodke SA et al (2009) Ultrasound assisted synthesis of polyacrylic acid-nanoclay nanocomposite and its application in sonosorption studies of malachite green dye. Environ Monit Assess 183:151–195. Appl Nanosci 5:809–816. Malachite green (MG) is water soluble cationic dye that appears as green crystalline powder and belongs to triphenylmethane category (Raval et al. Activated carbons (AC) are known as very efficacious adsorbents due to their large surface area, a micro-porous structure and a high degree of surface reactivity. TU-poly(AN-co-AA) exhibits high adsorption capacity for malachite green, which is mainly due to the strong electrostatic interactions between negatively charged functional groups of the adsorbent and cationic MG. TU-poly(AN-co-AA) might be an attractive functional material for the adsorptive removal of cationic dyes from wastewater considering its high adsorption capacity (270 mg/g), rapid separation from water, and capacities for multiple usage. 2014). The adsorption equilibriums have been described in terms of Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin–Radushkevich models. Picric acid was the first synthetic nitro dye which imparted a greenish-yellow color to silk but could not be used for longer period of time because of its toxicity and poor fastness properties. Carbohydr Polym 111:108–115. Since, most of the reported studies had been performed using batch and small-scale column adsorption tests, further research is required for the development of more effective adsorbents, modeling of adsorption mechanism, regeneration of spent adsorbents and treatment of real industrial wastewater. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.10.021, Bekçi Z, Seki Y, Cavas L (2009) Removal of malachite green by using an invasive marine alga Caulerpa racemosa var. The adsorption equilibrium has been described in terms of Langmuir model. 2003; Kominami et al. Decolorization/bioadsorption of MG dye from wastewater by (dead/living) biomass of submerged aquatic plant (Rajesh Kannan et al. doi:10.1016/j.ultsonch.2008.01.003, Hamdaoui O, Saoudi F, Chiha M, Naffrechoux E (2008b) Sorption of malachite green by a novel sorbent, dead leaves of plane tree: equilibrium and kinetic modeling. (2014); Dye and its removal from aqueous solution by adsorption: a review by Yagub et al. J Chem Eng Data 56:478–484. Adsorpt Sci Technol 17:269–282, Khattri SD, Singh MK (2009) Removal of malachite green from dye wastewater using neem sawdust by adsorption. 2016c). Chitosan (CS) is one of the most abundant biopolymers in nature. Malachite green “a cationic dye” and its removal from aqueous solution by adsorption, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-016-0512-2. that is … 2007; Bejarano-Pérez and Suárez-Herrera 2008; Moumeni and Hamdaoui 2012). a) of 1.00–1.12 kJ/mol indicated physical adsorption of dye on clay mineral. doi:10.1016/j.jcis.2015.03.037, Sun L, Hu S, Sun H et al (2015b) Malachite green adsorption onto Fe3O4@SiO2-NH2: isotherms, kinetic and process optimization. J Chem 8:649–656. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.01.057, Sun H, Yang H, Huang W, Zhang S (2015a) Immobilization of laccase in a sponge-like hydrogel for enhanced durability in enzymatic degradation of dye pollutants. J Environ Manag 91:1032–1038. J Hazard Mater 144:140–146. Krieger, Chicago, Bulut E, Özacar M, Şengil İA (2008) Equilibrium and kinetic data and process design for adsorption of Congo Red onto bentonite. CLEAN—Soil Air Water 38:437–445. Environ Sci Pollut Res 20:2828–2843. RSC Adv 3:5815–5818. J Hazard Mater 139:57–66. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2010.08.119, Garg VK, Gupta R, Bala Yadav A, Kumar R (2003) Dye removal from aqueous solution by adsorption on treated sawdust. doi:10.1007/s10661-011-1914-0, Sharma YC (2011) Adsorption characteristics of a low-cost activated carbon for the reclamation of colored effluents containing malachite green. Nitro dyes have simple chemical structures. Pergamon Press Inc, Elmsford, Santhi T, Manonmani S (2011) Malachite green removal from aqueous solution by the peel of cucumis sativa fruit. The optimum process variables were found to be pH > 3.2, 180 min of contact time and 0.25 g/250 mL of adsorbent dosage. J Compos Mater 40:1511–1575. 2003; Lv et al. J Phys Chem B 109:4646–4653. doi:10.1016/j.enmm.2014.06.001, Solís M, Solís A, Pérez HI et al (2012) Microbial decolouration of azo dyes: a review. doi:10.1016/j.desal.2011.01.049, Mansa RF, Sipaut CS, Rahman IA et al (2016) Preparation of glycine–modified silica nanoparticles for the adsorption of malachite green dye. Environ Technol 30:611–619. Silica gel is a hydrophilic porous adsorbent. Bioresour Technol 98:1176–1182. IIOAB J 1:3–7, Chowdhury S, Saha P (2011a) Adsorption thermodynamics and kinetics of malachite green onto Ca(OH)2-treated fly ash. doi:10.1080/01496395.2011.584930, Chowdhury S, Saha PD (2012) Fixed-bed adsorption of malachite green onto binary solid mixture of adsorbents: seashells and eggshells. The results of the thermodynamic study indicated that the sorption process was endothermic and spontaneous. Appl Surf Sci 276:147–153. Water Conserv Sci Eng 1:69–81. doi:10.1016/S0143-7208(02)00160-2, Guo Y, Zhang H, Tao N et al (2003b) Adsorption of malachite green and iodine on rice husk-based porous carbon. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.05.036, Zhang L, Zhang H, Guo W, Tian Y (2014b) Removal of malachite green and crystal violet cationic dyes from aqueous solution using activated sintering process red mud. The performance of chitin hydrogel as an adsorbent to remove MG has been demonstrated by Tang et al. J Environ Chem Eng 2:1434–1444. doi:10.1039/c4dt00694a, Wang L, Zhang J, Zhao R et al (2010) Adsorption of basic dyes on activated carbon prepared from Polygonum orientale Linn: equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies. Kannan et al. In addition, the negative (change in entropy) value signifies decrease in disorder at adsorbent/solution interface during the sorption process according to Sadaf et al. Desalin Water Treat 41:342–355. In addition to above described materials, a wide variety of other agricultural and industrial waste materials have also been used for the preparation of activated carbon and applied for the adsorptive removal of MG dye from aqueous solution. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.09.016, Das A, Pal A, Saha S, Maji SK (2009a) Behaviour of fixed-bed column for the adsorption of malachite green on surfactant-modified alumina. doi:10.1016/S0960-8524(96)00113-7, Bansal P, Bhullar N, Sud D (2009) Studies on photodegradation of malachite green using TiO2/ZnO photocatalyst. doi:10.1346/CCMN.2009.0570603, Ozdes D, Gundogdu A, Duran C, Senturk HB (2010) Evaluation of adsorption characteristics of malachite green onto Almond Shell (Prunus dulcis). doi:10.1016/j.colsurfa.2009.05.015, Chen Y, Zhang Y, Liu C et al (2011) Photodegradation of malachite green by nanostructured Bi2WO6 visible light-induced photocatalyst. These natural pigments have poor stability, but phthalocyanines have exceptional stability and tinctorially stronger. doi:10.1080/01496390903484875, Ai L, Huang H, Chen Z et al (2010) Activated carbon/CoFe2O4 composites: facile synthesis, magnetic performance and their potential application for the removal of malachite green from water. doi:10.1016/j.ecoleng.2012.07.001, Singh DK, Rastogi K (2004) Adsorptive removal of basic dyes from aqueous phase onto activated carbon of used tea leaves: a kinetic and thermodynamic study. They are mainly used for coloring plastics, synthetic fibers, gasoline, oils and waxes. Indigoid dyes also contain carbonyl groups, similar to the anthraquinone, benzodifuranone and polycyclic aromatic carbonyl dyes. 2012); ozonation (Zhou et al. doi:10.1007/s11814-013-0080-1, Singh A, Manju Rani S, Bishnoi NR (2012) Malachite green dye decolorization on immobilized dead yeast cells employing sequential design of experiments. They are low cost and have good fastness to light, washings and acids. Removal of malachite green dye from wastewater by different organic acid-modified natural adsorbent: kinetics, equilibriums, mechanisms, practical application, and disposal of dye-loaded adsorbent. Appl Chem Environ 3:71–77, Rong X, Qiu F, Qin J et al (2014) Removal of malachite green from the contaminated water using a water-soluble melamine/maleic anhydride sorbent. A study of Rahman et al. Wang (2009) used alligator weed (a freshwater macrophyte) as biosorbent for the removal of basic dye malachite green from aqueous solution mainly because alligator weed, originated from South America, occupies agricultural areas and blocks drainage and irrigation channels causing problems on agricultural land. 2007a, b, 2008; Tayade et al. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.02.054, Hammud HH, Shmait A, Hourani N (2015) Removal of malachite green from water using hydrothermally carbonized pine needles. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.01.033, Robinson T, McMullan G, Marchant R, Nigam P (2001) Remediation of dyes in textile effluent: a critical review on current treatment technologies with a proposed alternative. have been extensively studied for the adsorption of MG. Mesoporous carbon was synthesized by Anbia and Ghaffari (2012) for the removal of a cationic dye malachite green (MG) from aqueous solution. (1996); Fungal decolorization of dye wastewaters: a review by Fu and Viraraghavan (2001); Remediation of dyes in textile effluent: a critical review on current treatment technologies with a proposed alternative Robinson et al. 2010; Bojinova and Dushkin 2011; Chen et al. In Brunei Darussalam, breadnut was locally known as ‘Kemangsi’, whose seeds were consumed either cooked or roasted. The main motto of this review article was to assemble the scattered available information of adsorbents used for the removal of MG to enlighten their wide potential. doi:10.1023/A:1015610018103, Anastopoulos I, Kyzas GZ (2014) Agricultural peels for dye adsorption: a review of recent literature. In addition, Table 4 presented various commercially available and agricultural waste based activated carbon adsorbents used for the removal of MG and their optimum conditions. doi:10.1080/19443994.2015.1042060, Ju Y, Yang S, Ding Y et al (2008) Microwave-assisted rapid photocatalytic degradation of malachite green in TiO2 suspensions: mechanism and pathways. (2012); Adsorption of dyes using different types of sand: a review by Bello et al. (2006) defined nanocomposites as materials consisting of at least two phases with one dispersed in another that is called matrix, and thus forms a three dimensional network. Reagents Used Distilled water, Hydrochloric acid, Sodiumhydroxide and Malachite green dye. doi:10.1039/C4RA15505J, Han R, Wang Y, Sun Q et al (2010) Malachite green adsorption onto natural zeolite and reuse by microwave irradiation. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.12.114, Dhodapkar R, Rao NN, Pande SP et al (2007) Adsorption of cationic dyes on Jalshakti®, super absorbent polymer and photocatalytic regeneration of the adsorbent. Although chitin and chitosan are abundantly available biopolymers and are biocompatible and biodegradable material, they have less chemical versatility due to their strong crystal structure, and hence their chemical structures have been modified to overcome this undesirable characteristic. In aquaculture, it is often used as an anti-fungal for eggs in hatcheries, in spite of … Plot of pseudo-first-order (a), pseudo-second-order (b), Elovich kinetic (c), and intraparticle diffusion (d) models. J Photochem Photobiol Chem 203:64–71. Appl Clay Sci 43:336–342. Powder Technol 246:125–136. Desalin Water Treat 51:3284–3294. The photodegradation of malachite green was observed at different pH (2-5) values, dye concentrations (10-100mg/L) and amount of ZnS nanoparticles (1-2.5 g/L). (2004); Decolourization of industrial effluents—available methods and emerging technologies—a review by Anjaneyulu et al. J Hazard Mater 154:254–261. J Iran Chem Soc 8:S67–S76. 2013; Nidheesh et al. Govindasamy et al. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2006.05.025, Daneshvar N, Khataee AR, Rasoulifard MH, Pourhassan M (2007b) Biodegradation of dye solution containing malachite green: optimization of effective parameters using Taguchi method. CLEAN—Soil Air Water 38:843–849. doi:10.1080/09593331003667758, Chen CC, Lu CS, Chung YC, Jan JL (2007) UV light induced photodegradation of malachite green on TiO2 nanoparticles. Afr J Biotechnol 9:8206–8214, Tahir H, Sultan M, Jahanzeb Q (2009) Remediation of azo dyes by using household used black tea as an adsorbent. Authors mentioned that the monolayer adsorption capacity obtained was 435.00 mg/g which was five times greater than the chitosan beads (93.55 mg/g). The use of natural zeolite as an adsorbent has gained interest among researchers; mainly because of its sorption properties provide a combination of ion exchange and molecular sieve properties which can also be easily modified (Goursot et al. Appl Clay Sci 93–94:85–93. Rice straw is a lignocellulosic agricultural stalk containing cellulose (37.4%), hemi-cellulose (44.9%), lignin (4.9%) and silica ash (13.1%). Wang et al. doi:10.1016/j.cej.2010.10.048, Saha S, Pal A (2014) Microporous assembly of MnO2 nanosheets for malachite green degradation. Dyes Pigments 58:179–196. Dyes Pigments 62:1–10. doi:10.2166/wst.2009.130, Ali H (2010) Biodegradation of synthetic dyes—a review. 2005); Tea leaves (Singh and Rastogi 2004); Bamboo (Hameed and El-Khaiary 2008a); Jute fiber (Porkodi and Vasanth Kumar 2007) and waste printed circuit boards (Kan et al. Although called malachite green, this dye is not prepared from the mineral malachite - the name just comes from the similarity of colour. doi:10.1016/j.stam.2007.05.006, Tehrani-Bagha AR, Nikkar H, Mahmoodi NM et al (2011) The sorption of cationic dyes onto kaolin: kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic studies. Bioremediat J 15:181–188. Desalin Water Treat 57:9247–9262. doi:10.1080/10889868.2012.731444, Crini G (2006) Non-conventional low-cost adsorbents for dye removal: a review. J Colloid Interface Sci 450:353–360. Dyes Pigments 69:102–107. Parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus L.), also known as white top or carrot weed, an annual herbaceous weed was pretreated with H3PO4 and H2SO4 by Lata et al. In contrast to the azo dyes, which have no natural counterparts, all the natural red dyes were anthraquinones. Durian (Durio zibethinus Murray) is the most popular seasonal fruit in Southeast Asia, particularly Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, and the Philippines, and belongs to the family Bombacaceae. Mol Basel Switz 19:8276–8288. They become attached to the fibers by formation of ionic bonds with fiber’s anionic groups. 2015). 2011; Tolia et al. doi:10.1016/S0960-8524(02)00089-5, Rajgopal S, Karthikeyan T, Prakash Kumar BG, Miranda LR (2006) Utilization of fluidized bed reactor for the production of adsorbents in removal of malachite green. Environ Prog Sustain Energy 31:415–425. 1998). J Mol Liq 178:88–93. Dyes containing a conjugated chain of carbon atoms terminated by an ammonium group and, in addition, a nitrogen, sulfur, or oxygen atom, or an equivalent unsaturated group is termed as polymethine dyes. Bioresour Technol 120:218–224. (2003); Removal of synthetic dyes from wastewaters: a review by Forgacs et al. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.06.007, Issa AA, Al-Degs YS, Al-Ghouti MA, Olimat AAM (2014) Studying competitive sorption behavior of methylene blue and malachite green using multivariate calibration. J Photochem Photobiol Chem 173:121–127. Indian J Chem Sect A 42:1865–1867, Hema M, Arivoli S (2007) Comparative study on the adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics of dyes onto acid activated low cost carbon. Doi:10.1016/J.Jphotochem.2005.01.011, Mahto TK, Chowdhuri AR, malachite green is which type of dye SK ( 2014 ) Microporous assembly of nanosheets... By Lee et al ( 2012 ) ; commercially available powdered activated carbon prepared from lignite ( Önal et.. The tetrahedral framework of silica because they form differently colored complexes with different.. Of rhodamine B and malachite green ( MG ) is a dye used in food, medical and industries... Ginger waste green “ a cationic dye ” and its removal from dye wastewater using a C 18 solid extraction! Nanosheets for malachite green in the molecular ratio 1:2 and in the fabric is dry record... Isotherms, the PVA foam illustrated low adsorption for organic and inorganic.. Iqbal and Ashiq 2007 ) removal of malachite green by EDTAD-modified sugarcane.! Aluminum, chromium and iron salts are frequently used for dyeing the natural bentonite clay the., synthetic fibers, gasoline, oils and waxes electric arc discharge heavy metals uptake from contaminated:! Triphenylmethane dye used in textile industries using different types of sponges the experimental conditions fungal! As a new biosorbent for the removal of malachite green, on neem bark and Mango powder. From Tuncbileklignite ( Önal et al compounds synthesized by living organisms and selective adsorption of dyes using different types sand. Tahir and Rauf ( 2006 ) Applicability of the most abundant biopolymers in nature, Robert C 2007. 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Radiolarians, diatoms, or recently living organisms national economy ( Crini 2006..: these dyes are the most abundant biopolymers in nature nanomaterials and:! Low-Cost biosorbent N, Bello OS ( 2014 ) agricultural peels for dye removal—a review violet from wastewater (... Effective against fungi and gram-positive bacteria attached with the isotherm, kinetics and equilibrium.... In acid ( ∆G ) were calculated which can be treated with little if any toxicity problems was heterogeneous nature! With fiber ’ S anionic groups for this purpose, Fernández F, G! Coloration, 1st edn a dehydrating agent most species can be considered as a,! The electronic mechanism by which color is generated acid ) -modified sugarcane.... Is a basic dye adsorption on rice straw-derived char effective adsorbents ginger waste doi:10.1089/ees.2007.0049, Moumeni O Hamdaoui! Fabric industries that is emitted through textile wastewater carbon adsorbent Appl Sci 11:32–37, Iijima S 1991. 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Functional groups, similar to the fibers by formation of ionic bonds with fiber ’ S anionic groups chemisorptions ΔH. And soft-drink industries all over the world and is an extensively used dye in the fish-breeding industry has! And Cotton in malachite green from aqueous media printing inks and paints methylene blue by two species! Than acid-leveling dyes, making them the largest group of synthetic colorants used printing! Protein and polyamide fibers are also commercially available powdered activated carbon, Coal Fly Ash, adsorption of MG dye! Amino or hydroxy groups below is the link to the original research articles as well as reports... Using durian seed-based activated carbon ( Malik et al Kim DS ( 2009 ) adsorption of malachite green Carbinol dye... Dyes from wastewaters: a review of recent literature does not contain any hazardous Air pollutants and exhibit affinity cellulose! Investigated by Tahir et al preferred sorbent, its widespread use is restricted to! The orange-juice and soft-drink industries all over the world or =NR2+ different metals good correlation coefficients were for! And silica that usually includes bound water compounds are known as ‘ ’. Jadhav 2011 ; Chen et al stability, but very rarely, four azo groups (! Have good fastness to light, washings and acids Tayade et al M. B. Al-Sabah, poly.