According to this Wikipedia article Algérie française, colonel (later general) d’Aubignosc was the first chief of the Algerian administration in 1830. "Justice et torture à Alger en 1957 : apports et limites d'un document" (en collaboration avec Sylvie Thénault) in Dominique Borne, Jean-Louis Nembrini et Jean-Pierre Rioux (dir. Le Monde produced in May 2003 the dagger he allegedly used to commit war crimes as court evidence. "[49][50] To the contrary, General Jacques Massu denounced it, following Aussaresses' revelations, and before his death pronounced himself in favor of an official condemnation of the use of torture during the war. In 1954 the National Liberation Front (FLN) began a guerrilla war against France and … [66] Robin also argued that a 1959 agreement between France and Argentina instaured a "permanent French military mission" which was located in the offices of the chief of staff of the Argentine Armed Forces. The pied noirs lobby was powerful in Paris, and it pushed for apartheid-like white dominance. ... Atrocities included civilian massacres and torture. ... the Algerian War. For justifying the use of torture, he was condemned in court, and stripped of his army rank and his Legion of honor.[3][40][43][44]. This attempt at pacification by employing both targeted raids as well as mass punishment characterized the French strategy throughout the conflict. However, because of the amnesty and the prescription, there can be no criminal proceedings against Le Pen for the crimes he is alleged to have committed in Algeria. French film breaks silence of Algerian war atrocities July 16, 2004 in Entertainment A NEW film described as France’s Platoon tackles the savagery of the Algerian war, broaching a topic that until recently remained taboo and helping France face the demons of its colonial past. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [7], The 2004 Court of Cassation judgment condemning Aussaresses stated that "freedom to inform, which is the basis of freedom of expression" does not lead to "accompany the exposure of facts ... with commentaries justifying acts contrary to human dignity and universally reproved nor to glorify its author."[8]. Although the use of torture quickly became well-known and was opposed by the left-wing opposition, the French state repeatedly denied its employment, censoring more than 250 books, newspapers and films (in metropolitan France alone) which dealt with the subject and 586 in Algeria. "[11] Historian Olivier Le Cour Grandmaison thus wrote that "From the years 1840 to the 1962 independence, the physical body of the "Arab" has therefore been used as a terror instrument on which the colonial power has never ceased engraving the marks of its almighty power. * Slavery in the West Indies, including Haiti for centuries. Violence against harki began even before the ceasefire came into effect, with accounts suggesting a rise in violence in March 1962. Most controversial are the numbers of civilians killed. French Failure in Algeria: A Public Relations Disaster. They threw hundreds of prisoners into the sea from the port of Algiers or by helicopter death flights. a war to submit a people to one's will, one can issue all the laws one wants, but they will always be violated."[31]. Ben Bella, associated with the ALN, became the head of the new independent government, during which time he attempted to concentrate power. Bonnaud was later imprisoned in June 1961, on a charge of supporting the FLN. [65] French intelligence agents have long been suspected of having trained their Argentine counterparts in "counter-insurgency" techniques. The Algerian War lasted from 1954 to 1962. This culminated on 17 October 1961, when the French police suppressed a demonstration by 30,000 Algerians who were ostensibly protesting against a de facto curfew imposed on them by the prefecture of police, though the FLN had planned the demonstration as a potential provocation as well. The brutal 1954-1962 Algerian War of Independence saw atrocities committed on both sides with Algerian historians putting the death toll at 1.5 million Algerian victims while French … Torture was also evoked during the trial of ALN activist Djamila Boupacha, defended by lawyer Gisèle Halimi. It would have been possible for the political or military authority to put an end to it at any moment. The French army provide a chilling context for reviews of Nazi atrocities. "The State, Historians and Memories: The Algerian War in France, 1992–2002", conference at the international symposium "Contemporary Historians and the Public Use of History", "The violations of the law during the French-Algerian War" in, Branche, Raphaëlle. 2012. Elle n'en demeure pas moins sur les deux rives, une pratique tolérée par les autorités et une violence à laquelle les Algériens savent pouvoir s'attendre. The struggle against the OAS must be directed with ruthlessness, certainly, but it is not with teams of torturers, and even less with courts-martials that we will arrest what J.-M. Domenach called a "clandestine fascism." Algeria: France’s Undeclared War. The conflict then dispersed throughout the country, with the French military relying more heavily on helicopter bombing of opposition territory for the remainder of the war. [37] Conversely, informers reported an organized campaign to implicate the FPA such that FLN "leaders and carefully chosen militants from the workers' residence in Vitry - 45, rue Rondenay - have been tasked with declaring in cafés and public places that they have suffered exactions, were robbed of pocketbooks or watches[...], and were victims of violence by the 'Algerian police'. On July 1, 1962, Algerians overwhelmingly voted for independence and on July 3, French Pres. [51], Bigeard's justification of torture has been criticized by various persons, among whom Joseph Doré, archbishop of Strasbourg, and Marc Lienhard, president of the Lutheran Church of the Augsburg Confession of Alsace and Lorraine. The IGAME (Inspecteur général en mission extraordinaire) of both Oran and Algiers chose to avoid the issue, whereas the IGAME of Constantinois, Maurice Papon (who died in 2007 after having been convicted for crimes against humanity for his role under Vichy), was actively involved in repression (Branche, 2004). To the contrary, General Bigeard (then Colonel) called her remarks a "tissue of lies", while Aussaresses justified it[26], General Paul Aussaresses admitted in his 2001 book, "Services spéciaux, Algérie 1955–1957", to the systematic use of torture during the war. The first was Paul Teitgen, former General Secretary of the Algiers Police, who had been himself tortured by the Gestapo. During the 1954-62 war, which claimed 1.5 million Algerian lives, French forces brutally cracked down on independence fighters in the then colony, which was ruled by Paris for 130 years. Ethnicity is also a contentious categorization, since the populations in support of French rule and in opposition to it were composed of multiple ethnicities. France and the Algerian War, 1954-1962: Strategy, Operations and Diplomacy: Alexander, Martin S., Keiger, J.F.V. [52], In June 2000, Bigeard declared that he was based in Sidi Ferruch, known as a torture center from which many Algerians never left alive. These revelations followed testimony from a former tortured ALN activist, Louisette Ighilahriz, published in Le Monde on 20 July 2000, three days after the visit to France of Algerian President Abdelaziz Bouteflika. We must point out that some of them were very young teenagers and others old men of 75, 80 years or more. For decades, French officials talked of “les événements” – events – in Algeria, not “war”, which, like Northern Ireland’s “troubles”, cloaked savagery in euphemism. French Algeria (French: Alger to 1839, then Algérie afterwards; unofficially Algérie française, Arabic: الجزائر المستعمرة ‎), also known as Colonial Algeria, was the colonial rule of France over Algeria.French rule in the region began in 1830 with the invasion of Algiers and lasted until the Algerian War of Independence concluded in 1962. As combat moved to the capital, casualties peaked over the next year during the two, back-to-back battles of Algiers. François Mitterrand, the Minister of Justice, had, as a matter of fact, an emissary near [General] Massu in the person of judge Jean Bérard who covered us and knew exactly what was going on at night. [citation needed] A confidential report of the ICRC leaked to Le Monde newspaper confirmed the allegations of torture made by the opposition to the war, represented in particular by the French Communist Party (PCF) and other anti-militarist circles. Branche, Raphaëlle. During the 1960s, the U.S. started spreading the use of torture to its allies in Latin America, specifically torture using electrical generators, with Brazil and Andean cone countries first. Despite their working-class background, these colons—or pied noirs as they became more commonly known—enjoyed a status that elevated them above the Algerian population. Massu, 94 years old, acknowledged Ighilahriz's testimony and declared to 'Le Monde' that "Torture isn't indispensable in times of war, and one can very well do without it. Politics and Power in the Maghreb: Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco From independence to the Arab Spring. It killed thousands of Algerian civilians and combatants during the crackdown, successfully quelling FLN operations within Algiers. According to historian R. Branche, torture would begin with the systematic stripping of the victim. 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