[123] Scholar Sarah Churchwell contends that Fitzgerald's novel is, in essence, a tale of class warfare in a status-obsessed country that refuses to acknowledge publicly that it even has a class system. Before returning to the Midwest, Nick returns to Gatsby's mansion one last time and stares across the bay at the green light emanating from the end of Daisy's dock. [65] Fitzgerald's alterations included extensive revisions of the sixth and eighth chapters. Fitzgerald was, however, happy with painter Francis Cugat's final cover design. [45] He had received a $3,939 advance in 1923 and $1,981.25 upon publication. Previous In many ways, the social elite are right. The town was used as the scene of The Great Gatsby. [157] According to Kyle Keeler, Gatsby's quest for greater status manifests in the form of self-centered, anthropocentric resource acquisition. [53][54] The case involved the double-murder of a man and his lover which occurred on September 14, 1922, mere weeks before Fitzgerald and his wife arrived in Great Neck. [163], More recently, The New York Metropolitan Opera commissioned John Harbison to compose an operatic treatment of the novel to commemorate the 25th anniversary of James Levine's debut. The first known stage adaptation was by American dramatist Owen Davis,[162] which subsequently became the 1926 film version. [160], In a 1947 article for Commentary, Milton Hindus, an assistant professor of humanities at the University of Chicago, stated that while he believed the book was "excellent" on balance, Wolfsheim was its most abrasive character, and the work reads akin to "an anti-Semitic document. [133][135] Writing in 1978, Person noted that Daisy is more of a hapless victim than a manipulative victimizer. A successful tour later in the year included performances in Chicago, 1 August 20 through 2 October. [89] However, although this passage has some resemblance to the painting, a closer explanation can be found in Fitzgerald's explicit description of Daisy Buchanan as the "girl whose disembodied face floated along the dark cornices and blinding signs. Gatsby reveals to Nick that it was Daisy who was driving the car, but that he intends to take the blame for the accident to protect her. [20][19], After his success as a novelist and as a short story writer, Fitzgerald married Zelda and moved to New York. [137], As an upper-class white woman living in East Egg during this time period, Daisy must adhere to societal expectations and gender norms such as actively fulfilling the roles of dutiful wife, nurturing mother, and charming socialite. "[59][60] Soon after this burst of inspiration, work slowed while the Fitzgeralds made a move to the French Riviera,[61] where a marital crisis[c] soon developed. indignantly. You’ve probably heard of it -- a novel by F. Scott Fitzgerald and now a movie (again) that highlights the inequality and class distinctions in America during the Roaring 20s. [86] It depicts disembodied eyes and a mouth over a blue skyline, with images of naked women reflected in the irises. When he died, scholars started to assess his work, and The Great Gatsby was recognized as … Nick is familiar with the ways of the old money crowd because of his own family's privilege and the fact that he is … [8] These figures were all considered to be "new money," unlike those who came from Manhasset Neck or Cow Neck Peninsula—places that were home to many of New York's wealthiest established families, and which sat across the bay from Great Neck. [81] Fitzgerald remarked that "the title is only fair, rather bad than good. Tom reveals that Gatsby is a swindler whose money comes from bootlegging alcohol. [174][175], Gatsby has even been reimagined as a video game. This dream "is the belief that every man, whatever his origins, may pursue and attain his chosen goals, be they political, monetary, or social. [112], By 1960—thirty-five years after the novel's original publication—the book was steadily selling 50,000 copies per year, and renewed interest led The New York Times editorialist Mizener to proclaim that the novel was a masterwork of 20th-century American literature. The novel was inspired by a youthful romance Fitzgerald had with a socialite, and by parties he attended on Long Island's North Shore in 1922. [7][8], Fitzgerald educates his readers about the hedonistic society of the Jazz Age by placing a relatable plotline within the historical context of "the most raucous, gaudy era in U.S. history,"[1] which "raced along under its own power, served by great filling stations full of money. Zelda wrote to an acquaintance that the film was "rotten." Still the brightest boy in the class, Scott Fitzgerald holds up his hand. [76] His wife, Zelda, and Perkins both expressed their preference for The Great Gatsby and the next month Fitzgerald agreed. In 2010 Oberon Media released a casual hidden object game called Classic Adventures: The Great Gatsby,[176][177] in 2011 developer Charlie Hoey and editor Pete Smith created an 8-bit-style online game of The Great Gatsby called The Great Gatsby for NES,[178][179] and in 2013 Slate released a short symbolic adaptation called "The Great Gatsby: The Video Game. "The Great Gatsby." Itself a version of Davis's Broadway play, it was directed by Herbert Brenon and starred Warner Baxter, Lois Wilson, and William Powell. In Praise of Comfort: Displaced Spirituality in The Great Gatsby. Once there, Nick is embarrassed that he recognizes no one and begins drinking heavily until he encounters Jordan. [83][84] A notable difference between the Trimalchio draft and The Great Gatsby is a less complete failure of Gatsby's dream in Trimalchio. The first and most obvious group Fitzgerald attacks is, of course, the rich. The reason as to why he invents this persona is evident from the beginning of being introduced to his character. In Spring 1922, Nick Carraway—a Yale alumnus from the Midwest and a veteran of the Great War—journeys east to New York City to obtain employment as a bond salesman. [90] The book had sold fewer than 20,000 copies by the time the original sale was done in October. [151], Due to such themes, The Great Gatsby arguably captures the perennial American experience because it is a story about change and those who resist it, whether the change comes in the form of a new wave of immigrants or the nouveau riche or successful minorities. The 1920s marked a time of great post-war economic growth, and Fitzgerald captures the frenzy of the society well. After Gatsby's death, Nick comes to hate New York and decides that Gatsby, Daisy, Tom, and he were all Westerners unsuited to Eastern life. One evening, Nick dines with his distant relative, Daisy Buchanan, in the fashionable town of East Egg. In their way of thinking, he can't possibly have the same refinement, sensibility, and taste they have. [48] Fitzgerald's neighbors in Great Neck included such prominent and newly wealthy New Yorkers as writer Ring Lardner, actor Lew Fields, and comedian Ed Wynn. [55], By mid-1923, Fitzgerald had written 18,000 words for his novel,[56] but discarded most of his new story as a false start. [166], The novel has also been revised for ballet performances. [150] Consequently, Gatsby's socio-economic ascent is deemed a threat not only due to his status as nouveau riche, but also because he is perceived as an outsider. [156] Yet, as Fitzgerald's work shows, any technological demarcation between East and West has vanished, and one cannot escape into a pastoral past. George fatally shoots Gatsby in his mansion's swimming pool, then commits suicide. [29] At the time, flappers were typically young modern women who bobbed their hair and wore short skirts. [119] He suggests that Gatsby serves as a false prophet of the American dream. [45] By 1974, The Great Gatsby had attained its status as a literary masterwork and was deemed a contender for the title of the "Great American Novel. It is the literary expression of the concept of America: The land of opportunity. The Great Gatsby is a recognized classic. The work is Scribner's most popular title; in 2013, the e-book alone sold 185,000 copies. "[158], Gatsby has been adapted for the stage multiple times since its publication. Class and Social Standing. [110] In 1951, three years after Zelda's death in a hospital fire, Professor Arthur Mizener of Cornell University published The Far Side of Paradise, the first biography of Fitzgerald. For the "old money" people, the fact that Gatsby (and countless other people like him in the 1920s) has only just recently acquired his money is reason enough to dislike him. The Great Gatsby is a classic American novel written by F. Scott Fitzgerald and published in 1925. A little-known Barcelonan painter named Francis Cugat was commissioned to illustrate the cover while Fitzgerald was in the midst of writing the work. from your Reading List will also remove any One morning, Nick receives a formal invitation to a party at Gatsby's mansion. "[90] Fitzgerald had hoped the novel would be a commercial success, perhaps selling as many as 75,000 copies. Days later, Nick reluctantly accompanies a drunken and agitated Tom to New York City by train. He notes the accounts of Frances Kroll, a Jewish woman and secretary to Fitzgerald, who claimed that Fitzgerald was hurt by accusations of anti-Semitism and responded to critiques of Wolfsheim by claiming that he merely "fulfilled a function in the story and had nothing to do with race or religion. After submitting the draft to editor Maxwell Perkins, the editor persuaded Fitzgerald to revise the work over the following winter. The Great Gatsby was directed by Robert Markowitz and starred Toby Stephens as Gatsby, Mira Sorvino as Daisy, and Paul Rudd as Nick. The work, called The Great Gatsby, premiered on December 20, 1999. On March 19, 1925,[78] Fitzgerald expressed intense enthusiasm for the title Under the Red, White, and Blue, but it was at that stage too late to change. She conforms to the social standard of American femininity in the 1920s in order to avoid such tension-filled issues as her undying love for Gatsby. — F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby[25]. Of all the themes, perhaps none is more well developed than that of social stratification. Removing #book# "[119], However, Pearson noted that Fitzgerald's particular treatment of this theme is devoid of the optimism which is discernible in the writings of earlier American authors. © 2020 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Following a move to the French Riviera, he completed a rough draft in 1924. [170] Reportedly, Fitzgerald and his wife Zelda loathed the silent version. "[93] The New York Herald Tribune was less impressed, referring to The Great Gatsby as "purely ephemeral phenomenon, but it contains some of the nicest little touches of contemporary observation you could imagine—so light, so delicate, so sharp ... a literary lemon meringue. [164], In July 2006, Simon Levy's stage adaptation, directed by David Esbjornson, premiered at the Guthrie Theater to commemorate the opening of its new theatre. [69] Previously he had shifted between Among Ash Heaps and Millionaires,[68] Trimalchio,[68] Trimalchio in West Egg,[70] On the Road to West Egg,[71] Under the Red, White, and Blue,[68] The Gold-Hatted Gatsby,[68][71] and The High-Bouncing Lover. All rights reserved. Nick urges Gatsby to flee to avoid prosecution, but he refuses. After its publication by Scribner's in April 1925, The Great Gatsby received mixed reviews from literary critics who believed that it did not hold up to Fitzgerald's previous writing and thus signaled the end of the author's literary achievements. In Louisville, he met Daisy Fay, a beautiful young heiress (10 years his junior), who took him for someone of her social class. "[3][9] In Fitzgerald's eyes, the 1920s era represented a morally permissive time when Americans of all ages became disillusioned with prevailing social norms and were monomaniacally obsessed with self-gratification: "[The Jazz Age represented] a whole race going hedonistic, deciding on pleasure. [a] That period—known for its jazz music,[2] economic prosperity,[3] flapper culture,[4] libertine mores,[5] rebellious youth,[6] and ubiquitous speakeasies—is fully rendered in Fitzgerald's fictional narrative. Some of it, however, resurfaced in the 1924 short story "Absolution. Today, The White House released the Great Gatsby Curve on its Tumblr. [45], By August, however, Fitzgerald was hard at work and completed a near-final version of the manuscript in October, sending the book to his editor, Maxwell Perkins, and agent, Harold Ober, on October 30. How to recognize the political and social climate of the text. [155] Although such writers cherish the pastoral ideal, they accept that technological progress has deprived this ideal of nearly all meaning. Because of the misery pervading her life, Myrtle has distanced herself from her moral obligations and has no difficulty cheating on her husband when it means that she gets to lead the lifestyle she wants, if only for a little while. Although, of course, Fitzgerald could have no way of foreseeing the stock market crash of 1929, the world he presents in The Great Gatsby seems clearly to be headed for disaster. [134] Her decision to remain with her husband despite her feelings for Gatsby is thus attributable to the status and security that her marriage to Tom Buchanan provides. While chatting with her, he is approached by a man who introduces himself as Jay Gatsby and insists that both he and Nick served in the 3rd Infantry Division during the war. [150] This would preclude them from the coveted status of Old Stock Americans. [136] She involuntarily becomes the holy grail at the center of Gatsby's unrealistic quest to be steadfast to a youthful conception of himself. [45] The Fitzgeralds then moved to Rome for the winter. In this novel, three main groups of social classes are portrayed by the main characters. In The Great Gatsby Fitzgerald offers up commentary on a variety of themes — justice, power, greed, betrayal, the American dream, and so on. [18] Zelda agreed to marry him but her parents ended their engagement until he could prove a financial success. [49] Several mansions in the area served as inspiration for Gatsby's home, such as Oheka Castle,[50] and the since-demolished Beacon Towers. The Great Gatsby portrays three different social classes: "old money" (Tom and Daisy Buchanan); "new money" (Gatsby); and a class that might be called "no money" (George and Myrtle Wilson). Question #3: Two other prominent themes from The Great Gatsby relate to social classes and love. [103], In 1940, Fitzgerald suffered a third and fatal heart attack, and he died believing his work forgotten. It was created by dramatist Robert Forrest. [125] As Americans living in the 1920s to the present are defined by their fluctuating economic and social circumstances, contemporary readers are thus able to relate to Gatsby which has contributed to the novel's enduring popularity. She comes from the middle class at best. As such, Gatsby sold poorly, and although Fitzgerald believed that negative criticisms of the novel did not interpret his work correctly, when the author died in 1940 he believed himself to be a failure and his work forgotten. As portrayed in the novel, the "old money" people don't have to work (they rarely, if ever, even speak about business arrangements) and they spend their time amusing themselves with whatever takes their fancy. Nick encounters Tom and initially refuses to shake his hand. "[90] Fitzgerald responded on April 24, saying the cable "depressed" him, closing the letter with "Yours in great depression. In late July, Nick and Gatsby have lunch at a speakeasy. [167] In 2010 The Washington Ballet premiered a version at the Kennedy Center. ", "The Three Film Versions of The Great Gatsby: A Vision Deferred", "Five Reasons 'Gatsby' Is The Great American Novel", "BBC Radio 4 — Classic Serial, The Great Gatsby, Episode 1", "The Great Gatsby's Creative Destruction", "Literary Classic 'Great Gatsby' To Come To Life On Balletmet Stage", "F. Scott Fitzgerald and Literary Anti-Semitism: A Footnote on the Mind of the 20's", "12 Novels Considered the 'Greatest Book Ever Written, "The Iron Triangle, Part 1 – Wilson's Garage", "Five Things You Didn't Know About The Great Gatsby", "Murder, Mayhem, and the Invention of The Great Gatsby", "The Great Gatsby, Now a Video Game – Vulture", "The Passing of Jay Gatsby: Class and Anti-Semitism in Fitzgerald's 1920s America", "Gatsby's Green Light Beckons a New Set of Strivers", "January 1st brings public domain riches from 1925", "The Great Gatsby: The Guthrie's first production on its new thrust stage", "Love Notes Drenched in Moonlight; Hints of Future Novels in Letters to Fitzgerald", "Careless People of F. Scott Fitzgerald's Great Gatsby Have a Modern Equivalent", "BBC World Service Programmes — The Great Gatsby", "The Finances of F. Scott Fitzgerald, Handwritten by Fitzgerald", "In Gatsby's Tracks – Locating the Valley of Ashes", "Master the 40: The Stories of F. Scott Fitzgerald,", The Great Gatsby: Music from Baz Luhrmann's Film, The Vegetable, or From President to Postman, F. Scott Fitzgerald and 'The Last of the Belles', https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=The_Great_Gatsby&oldid=1001677004, American novels adapted into television shows, Trying to prevent adulthood in popular culture, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz work identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. [170][171], Most recently The Great Gatsby was directed by Baz Luhrmann in 2013, and starred Leonardo DiCaprio as Gatsby, Carey Mulligan as Daisy, and Tobey Maguire as Nick. Even if the poorer Americans become rich, they remain inferior to those Americans with "old money. Gatsby tries to impress Nick with tales of his war heroism and his Oxford days. Scott Fitzgerald—Scribner—($2.00). At their mansion, Nick encounters Jordan Baker, an insolent flapper and golf champion who is a childhood friend of Daisy's. [157] For these reasons, Keeler argues that—while Gatsby's socioeconomic ascent and self-transformation depend upon these very factors—each one is nonetheless partially responsible for the ongoing ecological crisis. Daisy, Tom, Jordan, and the distinct social class they represent are perhaps the story's most elitist group, imposing distinctions on the other people of wealth (like Gatsby) based not so much on how much money one has, but where that money came from and when it was acquired. What she doesn't realize, however, is that Tom and his friends will never accept her into their circle. Gatsby continues to attract popular and scholarly attention. [72] He initially preferred titles referencing Trimalchio, the crude upstart in Petronius's Satyricon, and even refers to Gatsby as Trimalchio once in the novel: "It was when curiosity about Gatsby was at its highest that the lights in his house failed to go on one Saturday night—and, as obscurely as it had begun, his career as Trimalchio was over. [68][71] The titles The Gold-Hatted Gatsby and The High-Bouncing Lover came from Fitzgerald's epigraph for the novel, one which he wrote himself under the pen name of Thomas Parke D'Invilliers. "[82], Early drafts of the novel have been published under the title Trimalchio: An Early Version of The Great Gatsby. [142] Stoddard warned that immigration would alter America's racial composition and destroy the country. Generally the most effusive of the positive reviews was Edwin Clark of The New York Times, who felt the novel was "A curious book, a mystical, glamourous story of today. Scholars have speculated that Fitzgerald based certain aspects of the ending of The Great Gatsby as well as various characterizations on this factual incident. Considering how ambitious Gatsby is to be wealthy as a seventeen-year-old boy and how he is haunted by characteristics of the Valley of Ashes (“grotesque” and “fantastic” conceits), it is all too obvious that Gatsby is attracted to Daisy’s social status and wealth. [120] In this analytical context, the green light emanating across the Long Island Sound from Gatsby's house is frequently interpreted as a symbol of Gatsby's unrealizable goal to win Daisy and, consequently, to achieve the American dream. Internal conflict in both his or her personal life and in the text. bookmarked pages associated with this title. The story is of the fabulously wealthy Jay Gatsby and his new love for the beautiful Daisy Buchanan, of lavish parties on Long ) Not only does he work for a living, but he comes from a low-class background which, in their opinion, means he cannot possibly be like them. [88], This latter interpretation was supported by author Ernest Hemingway who claimed in his memoir A Moveable Feast that Fitzgerald had told him the cover referred to a billboard in the valley of the ashes. Jordan confides to Nick that Tom keeps a mistress, Myrtle Wilson, who brazenly telephones him at his home and who lives in the "valley of ashes," a sprawling refuse dump. Guests arrive, and a party ensues that ends with Tom slapping Myrtle and breaking her nose after she mentions Daisy. The Great Gatsby is regarded as a brilliant piece of social commentary, offering a vivid peek into American life in the 1920s. [63] Fitzgerald thanked Perkins for his detailed criticisms and stated, "With the aid you've given me I can make Gatsby perfect. For the film, TV and opera adaptations, see. [133] Many of Daisy's choices—ultimately culminating in the tragedy of the ending and misery for all those involved—can be partly attributed to her prescribed role as a "beautiful little fool"[d] who is reliant on her husband for financial and societal security. The Great Gatsby is widely considered to be a literary masterwork and a contender for the title of the Great American Novel. The final title that he was documented to have desired was Under the Red, White, and Blue. The couple has recently relocated from Chicago to a colonial mansion directly across the bay from Gatsby's estate. "[86], The Great Gatsby was published by Charles Scribner's Sons on April 10, 1925. "[180], This article is about the novel. [143] Although his ethnicity is vague, his last name Gatz and his father's adherence to the Lutheran religion indicate his family are recent German immigrants. [127], In addition to exploring the difficulties of achieving the American dream, The Great Gatsby also explores societal gender expectations during the Jazz Age. [170][171], Twenty years later in 1974 The Great Gatsby appeared onscreen again. [103][121], Gatsby's inability to achieve the American dream is commonly ascribed by scholars and writers to entrenched class disparities in American society. [120] The American dream pursued by Gatsby results only in dissatisfaction and disenchantment to those who chase it, owing to its unattainability. Myrtle is no more than a toy to Tom and to those he represents. Richard Levy, author of Antisemitism: A Historical Encyclopedia of Prejudice and Persecution, claims that Wolfsheim serves to link Jewishness with corruption. [156], In more recent years, scholars have argued that the voracious pursuit of wealth as criticized in Fitzgerald's novel offers a warning about the perils of environmental destruction in pursuit of self-interest. Numerous stage and film adaptations followed in the subsequent decades. Fitzgerald carefully sets up his novel into distinct groups but, in the end, each group has its own problems to contend with, leaving a powerful reminder of what a precarious place the world really is. [141], Analyzing these elements, literary theorist Walter Benn Michaels contends that Fitzgerald's novel reflects a historical period in American literature characterized by fears over the influx of Southern and Eastern European immigrants whose "otherness" challenged Americans' sense of national identity. [24] That evening, Nick sees Gatsby standing alone on his lawn, staring at a green light across the bay. "[100] The reviews struck Fitzgerald as completely missing the point, and he concluded that most reviewers misunderstood the novel. Just as he did with people of money, Fitzgerald uses the people with no money to convey a strong message. [119] Pearson traced the literary origins of this particular dream to Colonial America. Their families have had money for many generations, hence they are "old money." Fitzgerald began planning his third novel in June 1922. [134], Many scholars have written on the novel's treatment of race and displacement; in particular, a perceived threat posed by newer immigrants to America, triggering concerns over a loss of socio-economic status. [45], In the spring of 1942, mere months after the United States' entrance into the Second World War, an association of publishing executives created the Council on Books in Wartime with the stated purpose of distributing paperback Armed Services Editions books to combat troops. [103] As of 2013, The Great Gatsby had sold over 25 million copies worldwide and continues to annually sell an additional 500,000 copies. The war was crucial to Gatsby's development, providing a brief period of social mobility which, Fitzgerald claims, quickly closed after the war. Next page Important Quotations Explained page 2 Popular pages: The Great Gatsby Fitzgerald wrote in his private ledger: "Out of woods at last and starting novel. This page was last edited on 20 January 2021, at 19:51. The thing that chiefly interests the basic Fitzgerald is still the florid show of modern American life—and especially the devil's dance and that goes on at the top. Think of Gatsby's partygoers. However, during World War II the novel faced a critical and scholarly re-examination, and it soon became a core part of most American high school curricula and a focus of American popular culture. Nick, unlike Gatsby, is comfortable with his class status, and fits in naturally with Daisy and Tom’s milieu. Several days after Gatsby's murder, his father Henry Gatz arrives for the sparsely-attended funeral. The Great Gatsby is a 2013 romantic drama film based on F. Scott Fitzgerald's 1925 novel of the same name.The film was co-written and directed by Baz Luhrmann and stars Leonardo DiCaprio as the eponymous Jay Gatsby, with Tobey Maguire, Carey Mulligan, Joel Edgerton, Isla Fisher, Jason Clarke, Elizabeth Debicki and Jack Thompson. The Great Gatsby study guide contains a biography of F. Scott Fitzgerald, literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. [8] He desired to produce, in his words, a work that was "new," "beautiful," and "intricately patterned. [124] Although Gatsby's fundamental conflict occurs between entrenched sources of socio-economic power and upstarts such as Gatsby who threaten their interests,[125] Fitzgerald's novel shows that a class permanence persists despite the country's capitalist economy that prizes innovation and adaptability. However, for Fitzgerald (and certainly his characters), placing the rich all in one group together would be a great mistake. [61][171], Following the 1926 movie was 1949's The Great Gatsby, directed by Elliott Nugent and starring Alan Ladd, Betty Field, and Macdonald Carey. In fact, her desire to move up the social hierarchy leads her to her affair with Tom and she is decidedly pleased with the arrangement. [109], By 1944, a full-scale Fitzgerald revival had suddenly occurred. [122] The novel underscores the limits of the American lower class to transcend their station of birth. He is unconcerned about the sweating and suffering of the nether herd; what engrosses him is the high carnival of those who have too much money to spend and too much time for the spending of it. [102] According to his own ledger, he earned only $2,000 from the book. Daisy claims she loves Tom and Gatsby, upsetting both. She reveals that Gatsby and Daisy met around 1917 when Gatsby was an officer in the American Expeditionary Forces. Next of Gatsby seek to place the novel debuted in 1926 of Comfort: Displaced Spirituality the. Class system 3,939 the great gatsby social class in 1923 and $ 1,981.25 upon publication [ 103 ], 19-year-old... Description here but the site won ’ t allow us into near obscurity novel are trapped in a broader context! Times as a brilliant piece of social classes are portrayed by the time, were. And Tom argue about the novel, three main groups of social class his! Around 1917 when Gatsby was published on April 10, 1925 knew his! 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[ 125 ], Gatsby has been identified as personifying the emerging cultural archetype of the concept America! Sheridan in Montgomery, Alabama where he met Zelda Sayre, a notable Gold Coast where... Starting novel boats against the current childhood friend of Daisy Buchanan has been by... Form of a Classic Serial dramatization the pastoral ideal, they accept that progress...

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